Development institutions and governments alike once viewed public-private partnership (PPP) as a very powerful tool for addressing key coordination problems, particularly in emerging market infrastructure. However, in sectors such as healthcare, sanitation, energy, and transportation; project design and implementation have generally proved to be challenging. Even well-designed and well-funded projects have faced substantial risks, ranging from political protest to rent-seeking. Impact Forum hosted a panel discussion which addressed various frameworks for thinking about opportunities and risks in large-scale public private partnerships; the panel was moderated by Professor Seetharam Kallidaikurichi of the National University of Singapore, while a distinguished roster of panelists joined from the private and public sectors, including Michiel Verhoeven of Microsoft, Roshan Sahay of the Asian Development Bank, and Matthew Gamser of IFC. The speakers provided a broad definition of the category that encompassed capacity building and national programs to stimulate social entrepreneurship as well as more familiar examples from large-scale infrastructure projects.